Category Archives: Notes and Resources

Cognitive theories


Reasons Why We Forget

Tot Ten Memory Improvement Tips

Memory games for kindergarten


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Schema Theory:

Traditional vs. Constructivism

Constructivist Approach in kindergarten

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Social Cognitive


A study of aggression: Bobo doll experiment


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Behavioral Theories


Classical Conditioning

Thorndike’s law of effect:

Historical overview of the development of behaviorism from Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning to Skinner



  • Involves placing a neutral signal before a reflex



  • Focuses on involuntary, automatic behaviors


  • Focuses on strengthening or weakening voluntary behaviors


How it works:

Classical conditioning involves pairing a previously neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (the taste of food). This unconditioned stimulus naturally and automatically triggers salivating as a response to the food, which is known as the unconditioned response. After associating the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, the sound of the bell alone will start to evoke salivating as a response. The sound of the bell is now known as the conditioned stimulus and salivating in response to the bell is known as the conditioned response.

How it works:

Operant conditioning focuses on using either reinforcement or punishment to increase or decrease a behavior. Through this process, an association is formed between the behavior and the consequences for that behavior. For example, imagine that a trainer is trying to teach a dog to fetch a ball. When the dog successful chases and picks up the ball, the dog receives praise as a reward. When the animal fails to retrieve the ball, the trainer withholds the praise. Eventually, the dog forms an association between his behavior of fetching the ball and receiving the desired reward.

making an association between an involuntary response and a stimulus making an association between a voluntary behavior and a consequence.
involves no such enticements. the learner is also rewarded with incentives
classical conditioning is passive on the part of the learner operant conditioning requires the learner to actively participate and perform some type of action in order to be rewarded or punished.

Punishment vs discipline

discipline vs punishment


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multiple intelligences

Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence

How to integrate 9 intelligences in a lesson


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Motivational videos

How Do You Find Your Passion and How Do You Pursue It

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Understanding Flow


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